The Orient was central to the work of Marx and Weber, both figures building their theories around the question of why modernity appeared to emerge only in the West. While Marx’s account focused on the accumulation of capital in the West, Weber’s explanation for this phenomenon centred on Western rationalization. Extending recent work comparing the social theories of Marx and Weber, this book examines their approaches to Oriental societies, showing how, in spite of the differences in their respective theorizations of the historical and political development of the West, their work on the form of modern society in the Orient converges, each complementing the other. Fully conversant with recent scholarly work on Marx and Weber, this comprehensive re-examination of the points of convergence and departure in their work requires us to re-evaluate both their positions in the history of sociology and their relevance to contemporary social questions. As such, it will appeal to scholars of social and political theory and classical sociology.